The Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition (Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr), published by The Korean Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (KSPGHAN), follows the guidelines of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication." The following summarizes the key aspects of the guidelines.

<General information>
1. Publication type
The Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition publishes original articles, review articles, editorial, letter to the editor and case reports on all aspects of pediatric gastroenterology, hepatology, and nutrition. Review articles are limited to those manuscripts requested by the Editorial Board.

2. Editorial policy
A submitted manuscript must be an original contribution not previously published, and if accepted, the manuscript must not be published in another journal.

3. Peer-review process
All manuscripts undergo peer review by three anonymous reviewers selected by the Editor. The results of the review are classified as ① accept ②minor revisions ③major revisions ④ reject ⑤ consultation. The corresponding author is notified, generally within three to four weeks after submission, of the Editor's decision.  
Review articles are usually solicited by the Editorial Board. However, unsolicited reviews of exceptional interest will also be considered. Authors should contact the Editor before submitting a review to determine whether the topic and contents are appropriate for the Journal. Reviews should be balanced and unbiased. Review articles undergo peer review.

4. Research and publication ethics
 All studies reporting experiments on human subjects must have followed the procedures in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975 (revised in 2000). In addition, authors are encouraged to register the study with the Korea Clinical Research Information Service (CRiS, http://cris.cdc.go.kr) or other institutes approved by the WHO International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP).
  The authors should participate in the intellectual content, the analysis of data, and the writing of the article, to take public responsibility for it. The authors have to review the final version of the article and agree with that the article represents valid work and approve it for publication. Anything of the material in the manuscript should not have been published previously and should not be included in another manuscript. The article should not have been accepted for publication elsewhere, nor should the authors have assigned any right or interest in the article to any third party. The authors should obtain and include with the manuscript written permission from any respective copyright owners for the use of any text, figures, and tables that have been previously published.
  The Publication Committee of Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr strictly prohibit the following malpractices associated with publication. If one of the malpractices is prominently detected in a paper, the paper will be forcefully retracted by the committee.
The followings are:
  • 1) Fabrication: Behaviors dishonestly creating some records, being not in existence.
  • 2) Falsification: Behaviors selectively modifying some data from a study or distortedly explaining
         uncertain things resulted from a statistical analysis of the study.
  • 3) Plagiarism: Behaviors making a fraudulent use of others' idea, method, results, and sentence
         et cetera without a appropriate permission from them.
For the policies on the research and publication ethics not stated in this instruction, international standards for editors and authors (http://publicationethics.org/international-standards-editors-and-authors) can be applied.


Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr uses the authenticated software (CrossCheck; http://www.crossref.org/crosscheck.html) to detect instances of overlapping and similar text in submitting manuscripts. The publication committee will immediately reject a submitting manuscript which has a high similarity index to other papers in the CrossCheck.

5. Submission of manuscripts
Manuscripts can be submitted online (http://www.pghn.org/submission/ or http://www.kspghan.or.kr). Other correspondences can send an e-mail to editor of the Korean Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition (kspghn@gmail.com). (Address: 4F 408 ChildFund Bldg., 20, Mugyo-ro, Jung-gu, Seoul 04522, Korea. Tel: +82-2-318-2259, Fax: +82-2-6420-2269). Documents should be submitted as Microsoft Word or Hancom Hanword files, and the paper size should be A4 - 210×297 mm (8.28"×11.69"). Acceptable formats for figures are TIFF, JPEG, or GIF files.  
The manuscript should be consistent throughout the text with regard to the spelling, punctuation, abbreviations, and formatting; the manuscript should be double spaced. The margins are 30 mm top and bottom and 20 mm left and right

<Preparation of manuscripts>
1. List of documents
1) Original articles should be arranged as follows: ① title page ② abstract and keywords ③ the body (introduction, patients/materials and methods, results, and discussion) ④ acknowledgements ⑤ references ⑥ tables, figures, and
legends.
2) The case report is arranged as that of original articles except for the body: introduction, case report, and discussion.
3) The review article is arranged as that of original articles except for the body: introduction, text (atypical form), and conclusion.
4) Pages should be numbered from the title page to the end of the document; pages should be numbered at the bottom center of each page. In addition, start each section on a new page.

2. Title page
1) The title page should indicate (a) the complete manuscript title, (b) authors' full names and institutional affiliations, (c) the corresponding author's name and address, (d) the running title, and (e) all sources of financial support.
2) The information on the corresponding author should be provided at the bottom left of the page and should include the author's full name, zip code, address, affiliation, telephone and fax numbers, and email.
3) The running title should be used only when the title exceeds 15 words.

3. Abstract
1) Each original article should have a concise abstract of 200-250 words. The following format should be followed: ① Purpose ② Methods ③ Results ④ Conclusion.
2) Each case report should have a concise abstract of 125-150 words; the abstract need not follow a specific format.
3) Footnotes, tables, and references should not appear in the abstract.

4. Keywords
A list of up to ten keywords should follow the abstract. Terms from the medical subject headings (MeSH) list of Index Medicus should be used.

5. The body
The manuscript should be consistent throughout the text with regard to the spelling, punctuation, abbreviations, and formatting.

6. Authors can choose to include acknowledgements.

7. References
1) References should be in English, numbered consecutively throughout the text, and compiled in the reference list of the paper. In the text, references should be indicated by Arabic numerals.
2) If there are more than seven authors, name only the first six followed by "et al."
3) Refer to the List of Journals indexed in Index Medicus for abbreviations of journal names.
4) References should be limited to 40 for original articles and 20 for case reports.
5) Sample reference styles are provided below:

i. Journal articles
Seo JK, Ko JS, Choi KD. Serum ferritin and Helicobacter pylori infection in children: a sero-epidemiologic
study in Korea. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2002;17:754-7.

ii. Book chapter
Choe BH, Bezzera J, Balisteri WF. Transplantation for Cholestatic Liver Disease in the Pediatric Patient.
In: Busuttil RW, Klintmalm GB, eds. Transplantation of the Liver. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier
Saunders, 2005:303-21.

iii. Books
Day RA. How to write and publish a scientific paper. 3rd ed. Phoenix: Oryx, 1988:163-96.

iv. Abstract/supplement
Roxburgh J, Cooke RA, Deverall P. Haemodynamic function of the carbomedics bileaflet prosthesis
[abstract]. Br Heart J 1995;73(Suppl 2):37.

v. Web sites
Basically, websites are referenced with their URL and access date, and as much other information is given
as is available. Access date is important, as websites can be updated and URLs change. The "date accessed"
can be later than the PGHN acceptance date of the paper, and it can be just the month accessed.
Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Anti-inflammatory effects of omega 3 fatty
acid in fish oil linked to lowering of prostaglandin [Internet]. Rockville (MD): ScienceDaily; 2006
[cited 2013 Sep 13]. Available from: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/04/060404085719.htm.

8. Tables and figures
1) Tables and figure should be in English and Arabic numerals.
2) Each table must have a title. The title must not use abbreviations. Capitalize the first letter of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs.
3) Abbreviations can be used in tables and should have footnotes. Vertical lines should be avoided in tables.
4) Footnotes should be expressed in the order of *, †, ‡, §, ∥, ¶, **.
5) The title and description of figures should be in the legend. Art should be created/scanned and submitted as individual files in JPEG, GIF, or TIFF format. Electronic photographs and scanned images must have a resolution of at least 300 dpi.
6) If a figure has several parts, use capital letters (e.g., Fig. 1A and Fig. 1B).
In principle, photographs should be in color except for radiographs.
7) In the text, tables and figures should be cited as Table and Fig.

9. Other
1) In general, documents should use Arabic numerals and the international system of units (SI) for laboratory data.
2) The sources of special chemicals or preparations should be provided (i.e., the name and exact location of the source, among others).
3) In general, the use of capital letters should be limited proper nouns (e.g., the names of specific people, places, and organizations) and abbreviations.


<Other information>

1. Authors bear the design fee and the cost for printing of illustration containing color.
2. When manuscript is submitted, authors (except international authors) should send review fee 20,000 KRW on line (Shinhan bank 100-024-007314, the name of depositor: The Korean Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition). The name of remitter should be first or corresponding author's name.
3. Articles published in this journal can be freely obtained from the official web site of Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr (www.pghn.org) as English contents, abstracts and full text PDF files. Single copies ($5 or 5,000 KRW), when available, may be ordered from the publisher. Prices subject to change without notice.
4. Copyrights policy: Copyright for all material published in Pediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology & Nutrition(Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr) is vested in The Korean Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition.

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